The world that we perceive through the senses do. The nervous system channels and processes signals from outside; is a complex system on which many studies have developed (with very different approaches).
Among the theories that have been developed around the sense of sight, are of special interest are those that are included under the so-called “Gestalt Theory“, which highlights a set of laws that structure the cognitive process which takes place during the decoding of the information you give us light.
Gestalt: Psychological theory as exposed by M. Wertheimer en 1912.
The Gestalt school specialized in the investigation of perceptual organization.
The Gestalt laws are based on the idea that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts”, outlining key elementary processes of the organization of information in the perceptual process.
The perception laws were enunciated by the Gestalt psychologists, (Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka); those in experimental psychology laboratory observed that the human brain organizes perceptions as wholes (Gestalts) according to certain laws to which they called “perception laws” (Guillermo D. Leone)
Called “Necker Cube” is a simple example that accommodates multiple interpretations of the same figure.
Depending on the subject that make, and additional aspects that can influence, may be “viewed” differently.
In the Necker cube, sometimes see the cube from below and some from above
This mode is represented cube “Wired”, surfaces without occluding the rear faces, what gives rise to sometimes to think that the faces are in an arrangement and others are in a different.
By adding new information as shading of faces are partially reduces this effect; indeterminacy remains the way because we can assume that is a cube or just three planes concurrent (the corner of a room for example)
In this bucket, if we put a point on their faces, unlikely we will agree in your location given the ambiguity in the representation. Are you located in the anterior, or in the lateral? might ask.
This ambiguity is the basis for creating unique visual effects that are known as “optical illusions”.
- Delusion: (the. illusion) f. False perception of an object that appears in consciousness is different from what actually, due to an abnormal performance of the sense data.
- Optics: (in. Optical) f. Part of physics that deals with light and light phenomena.
- Optical illusion: error in the estimation of the dimensions, shape or color of objects.
Optical illusions can be analyzed structuralist criteria that constitute the laws of Gestalt, interpret the phenomenon allowing a prism rationalist. An example of this is found in this blog article entitled Optical Illusions views with Photoshop: analysis board.
Leyes de la Gestalt
We can find different classifications in the existing literature, depending on the grouping or segmentation of the key principles that. Eg (W) have:
- Law of Totality
- Act Structure
- Law Dialectic
- Law of Contrast
- Law of Closure
- Law of Completeness
- Notion Pregnancia
- Topological Invariance Principle
- Masking Principle
- Top of Birkhoff
- Proximity Principle
- Memory principle
- Top of Nesting
Here are the fundamental from the perspective of its application to the interpretation of our graphics in education..
We tend to group these objects percibimos next, passing information to form more complex structures.
You can talk about “tension” between the elements of the image as a way to measure the proximity and their complexity.
A set of points separated by similar distances between them have the same visual tension, preventing their differentiation and grouping.
If we look at a figure in which the elements are “grouped” in areas of the same, the unite into a more complex that contains.
Figure points can be associated to two different sized rectangular shapes. Although they may seem similar forms, I am no.
We will have two regions of visual attraction due to the grouping of meaningful units in two separate areas.
- Equality or equivalence (Grouping)
Occurs when there are different kinds of elements, forms the colores; those which can be assimilated with a pattern new entities are grouped into more complex.
In this case the grouping is done by pairs of similar lines, in the form of columns “roads” mutually parallel.
In this figure we distinguish four sets thus formed by parallel lines.
Although the columns are equal do not perceive; grouped in rows or rows of the same color elements, that is more broadly relevant than provided in the form when the elements are similar.
Although the columns are identical not perceive; because of the color of objects a sort occurs in horizontal rows, while the vertical management not espercibida.
The color predominates on the forms when they are similar and in general is strongly striking in the spatial planning process.
Color blindness can cause perceptual differences that can be seen by looking at the tests that analyze.
- Prägnanz or “good shape”
The simplest elements are preferred in the perceptual process, possible to synthesize and “memorize” the shapes that make up the image. Whenever we can order other items constituting the simplest possible apply this mechanism, simplifying the process of decoding the image.
In the figure we see two elements, a rectangle and a circle, although produced three inner regions (one common to both the geometric elements).
In more complex forms look this model analogously. In Figure recognize three vertical lines to simplify the analysis of the content.
If the bottom lines were slightly offset to one side not appreciate to find a model for elementary pattern memorization.
- Closure of the objects or “enclosure”
There is a tendency to limit the ways its contours, trying “lock” by curved or straight lines that separate the media object.
The rectangle in the figure divides the space into an inner region and an outer at the same. Although it is not completely, perceive this spatial separation mentally completing the elements that produce the closure or closure of the object.
This effect allows certain drawings, incomplete as panda head that illustrates this point, perceived as closed volumes, certain degrees of freedom allowing the designer to the artistic accomplishment of different variants.
Controlled interrupt lines relaxes the weight of the figure, remained closed at perceptual level; discharge lines can significantly restrict the interaction with the image of the observer.
- Experience and Comparison with the everyday
We tend to see “we know”. Our experience makes us load “see” what we are used for our environment, professional or even our personal traumas. Actually in the perceptual process not “see”, what we do is to interpret.
The lines of the figure can be interpreted as a letter “F” lying. To produce this interpretation we know how to read, have an experience in the world of letters that will lead to this form. A person who can not read would possibly buildings or other objects.
A person who is working in an architectural design could also fall into this second interpretation to relate their activity.
The everyday experience and are therefore a key element in the perception and interpretation of graphs.
The regularization by simplifying symmetries of objects in the pattern recognition process.
If we observe a nearly symmetrical figure will tend to perceive it as if it were rigorously symmetric, as our mind unconsciously brings missing elements.
The figure shows several concentric rectangles having two axes of symmetry, one horizontal and one vertical.
If we remove one of the points, continue receiving ordination described, be difficult in more complex cases aprecciar these “anomalies”.
We completed information to our previous experience.
Although the lines are interrupted perceive its continuity.
A dashed line formed by the same as a continuous line by maintaining a regular pattern in the same, or if interrupts are small compared to the overall size.
- Background / Figure
The objects are in the foreground or background are the scene. The grouping in elementary or complex forms of structured ends when we identify a constituent elements and other elements of the upstage.
We see that the exposed models make space flat structuring. The overlap of the forms and their differentiation from the background provide a sense of depth by completing the perceptual process
The classic example used to highlight this law is based on a monochrome image in which we can switch between the interpretation of a drink or two facing.
A more elaborate example can be seen in the post “Basically my figure“
Based on these rules we can analyze different images that you can see hidden images in varying degrees.
An interesting analysis can be found in A few subliminal messages, in which we discuss the incorporation of these techniques in advertising Camel.
Much has been made on incorporating images “hidden” Camel in figure present in snuff packages of such trademarks. A twist on the use of these techniques can be done using the techniques or perception laws explicitly exposed in a, without hiding the “double meaning” picture.
In closing this introduction you have some photos of the latest advertising campaign based on the realization of a set of limited series with variations on this theme, in which the camel is reconstructed as ghosting patterns based on Gestalt.
Of course it “essential” Camel is the figure that identifies the brand. Their latest product, called “Essential” minimaliza this idea by simply enclosing the object. An art in design.
- Recommended Books
A great book for lovers of the image they want to examine the processes thereof structuralist. A gem of a birth imprescindible.El average than those that had prevailed for thousands of years were an innovation in the world of communication.
Apparently closest to the everyday environment that they were based on different forms of verbal expression, soon saw the danger that may result from their ability to change the perception of reality and its power to alter feelings, emotions and induce action.
- Image synthesis
- Optical Illusions views with Photoshop: analysis board
- Basically my figure
- Test the dancer
- CAMEL double images: Figure background
- Double images: Group
- Instructions impossible
- Gestalt Psychology (Wikipedia)
- Visual Perception
- Optical Illusions
- The Gestalt Principles
- Leyes de la Gestalt
- Leyes de la Gestalt
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